[て] + B (Reason・Cause) - Grammar Discussion

and・and so
due to
because of
since
conjunctive

Structure

  • Verb[ ] + B
  • い-Adj.[ ] → → く + B
  • な-Adj.[ ] + B
  • Noun[ ] + B
  • Exception: いい → よく + B

[The て-form can be used to express reason/cause. When verb[て] or adj[て] are used, the following clause is often limited to expressing the feelings of the speaker, verbs in potential form or, in general, something beyond the control of the speaker]

[Frequently found in sentences that contain words like 困る、嬉しい、大変、びっくり、疲れている、心配、休む、安心、◯が痛い、気持ちがいい etc.]

View on Bunpro

For the example sentence: メアリーがアメリカにかえって悲かなしいです (Mary returned to the USA and I am sad.), why wouldn’t it be メアリーがアメリカにかえっ if the verb is past tense?

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I am also confused by the switch of the agent in this sentence. Couldn’t this be interpreted two ways?

メアリーがアメリカに帰って悲しいです。
1.) Mary returned to the USA and I am sad.
2.) Mary returned to the USA and she is sad.

This is because the purpose of the sentence is to for the speaker to convey the current state of sadness, not to convey the information that Mary has returned home. If it was, it would read something like 私は悲しい。なぜならメアリーが帰ったから。 or something along those lines. Of course there are many other ways to convey this.

Yes, it absolutely could, but like so many things in Japanese you need to read into the context. Obviously you can’t do this in a BunPro example sentence, but if you were talking to a friend, you would immediately know from the situation, tone, atmosphere, etc. who was sad.

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Thank you @matt_in_mito for clearing that up for me! <3

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Is it specifically not acceptable to put an を before して in
日本語(にほんご)能力試験(のうりょくしけん)を合格(ごうかく) して 嬉(うれ)しかったです。
I hadn’t used を at all before する until I saw a few sentences on this site where they’d been included. Is it necessary for certain types of constructions? Are the places where を is used not する verbs?

From my understanding, putting the を here is grammatically acceptable but not very many people would do it. I don’t know in enough detail to say what situation people would use it in, but personally I feel like it looks more natural without.

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:warning: Notice that Verb[て] + すみません is also the case of this usage.

The link goes to the grammar list, not the individual grammar point.

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@Ambo100
Thank you!
Fixed :+1:

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In the review:

勇者さまは5年前に、交通事故死んだ。

Could I also use?

勇者さまは5年前に、交通事故のせいで死んだ。

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This is grammatically correct, but it will change the meaning and the nuance of the sentence a bit. のせいで brings a bit of “blame” into the sentence and makes the speaker sound more resentful. If he/she were to just use で, the sentence would just be stating a fact. Cheers!

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Also, notice that で is what makes せいで express cause. せい by itself means “blame”.
Similar with おかげで, おかげ by itself means “thanks/blessing/gratitude”.

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