為に ために - Grammar Discussion

English
because of
as a result of

Structure
Verb + ため(に)
いAdj + ため(に)
Noun + の ため(に)
なAdj + な ため(に)

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How do i know when to use no tame ni or to use ni yoru or ni yotte?

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@cjswanson1355
Hey :grin:

This gonna be a long ride. So put your seatbelt on.

ため and により(によって)are both formal expressions, used in documents, master theses, etc.

Let’s focus on meaning firsts:

ため(に) can express profit, purpose, reason, cause and basis for judgment or conjecture.

自然環境のために生分解性物質を使うべきです。
We should use bio-degradable materials for sake of nature.

建物を建てるために中でもクレーンが必要である
You need a crane among others in order to build a house.

コンサートが地震のために中止となった。
The concert has been canceled due to the earthquake.

彼女は弱そうに見えたために殺されただろう。
She has been killed probably because she looked weak.


によって can express agent in a passive sentence, means of doing something, dependency and reason and cause.

この漫画はくぼたいとによって描かれた。
This manga has been drawn by Tite Kubo.

多くの人はよみちゃんなどのアプリによってライトノベルやニュースを読めるようになった。
A lot of people have finally become able to read manga, new etc by means of applications like yomichan.

A会社は問題について対処できるかどうかによってリリース日が 延期するかもしれない。
Depending on whether or not A company will be able to deal with this problem, the release date might be postponed.

指定されたキーの組み合わせの操作によって、アプリケーションを終了する。
The app closes due to a specified key combination.


I have bolded common parts, on which we will focus.

Structure:
Similarities:

  • particles か and と can be used together with によって and ため to connect multiple reasons
  • particles can follow ため and によって (though は can follow によって but cannot follow ため)

Differences:

  • によって can only DIRECTLY follow nouns (and な adjectives), so you have to use nominalizer if you want to use it after a verb
  • ために when stating a reason can follow:
    – adjectives
    – nouns
    – verbs in past forms (the only exception, it can follow non-past verbs if they express habitual actions)

Usage: (assuming the structure of the sentence: A, B)

  • ため is not used when A is incidental cause for B, but によって can be used (basically, if A causes B according to common sense, general knowledge then both are ok when it A triggers something by chance, によって is the only one that can be used)
  • によって can be used in hypothetical (similar to ば and と、but not identical, A has a very high chance of happening (so in some cases it can be rephrased to them, in most not))and factual sentences, ため can be used only in factual ones
  • ため has a tendency to be used with some negative situations, によって is used with negative, positive and neutral sentences more or less evenly
  • ます/です can precede ため, but not (こと)によって
  • によって is only used when A directly causes B (AによってB can be rephrased to AがBさせる)

I hope it helps.

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Thanks. I will study this but I’m thinking it will take awhile to fully sink in. Great write up.

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Would be neat if the kanji version was also given as a definition (為に)

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Done :+1:

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Can you do a comparison with で as well?
For example
コンサートが地震のために中止となった。
地震コンサートが中止となった。
Is there any difference between both of them in nuance? Cases where you should be using one instead of the other? Besides the fact that で is only used with nouns (and maybe Na Adjectives?).

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Hey and sorry for the very slow answer :bowing_man:

Those two are both possible expressions and mean the same thing.
The main difference is that て form (in this case で comes from て form) might express reason or cause like から、ため、ので but it is much weaker than those. で can also express location, means, time, etc.

When で expresses reason/cause the nouns is something that is beyond human control, the most common sentences with で are about illness and weather.

キムさんは病気で倒れた。 Mr. Kim collapsed due to (because of) illness.
トムさんは病気のため来られなかった。Mr Kim couldn’t come due to (because of) illness.
本店は台風のために休業していた。The shop is closed due to typhoon.
台風で木が倒れた。Tree collapsed due to the typhoon.

To be honest, in those cases で seems to be used more often.

Plus, you cannot use のは。。。ためだ pattern with で。

キムが倒れたのは病気のためだ。:+1:
キムが倒れたのは病気で。:-1:

That is basically it. I hope it helps :grin:
Cheers!

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